Motivation
Functor
solves the problem of mapping regular oneparameter functions into a subcategory, but that’s not easy for functions with more than one parameters.
Let’s consider a function with two parameters f :: a > b > c
, which can also read as a > (b > c)
. Applying fmap
on f
, we will get fmap f :: m a > m (b > c)
. There’s still some distance from what we want: f' :: m a > m b > m c
. To get f'
, we need a transform from m (b > c)
to m b > m c
. Here we denote it as <*> :: m （b > c) > m b > m c
. We will later show that such transform is universal for functions with more parameters.
Now consider a function with three parameters f :: a > b > c > d
. We are going to transform it into a wrappedvalue version, with the help of fmap
and <*>
.


Here \a_ b_ c_ > ((fmap f a_) <*> b_) <*> c_
is in the desired type. For most of the time, applying parameters directly is actually what we want, instead of the function itself, so the code could simply be written as ((fmap f a) <*> b) <*> c
, where a
, b
and c
are wrapped values. Parenthesis could be omitted if precedences are set properly, which leads to a neat and easytoread form:


In haskell, fmap
has an infix name <$>
. So finally we get: f <$> a <*> b <*> c
.
Applicative
Haskell predefined a type class Applicative
, which captures the pattern <*>
. Any type that implements Applicative
works well with <$>
and <*>
.


Note that an Applicative
is also a Functor
. Apart from <*>
, there are some other helper functions or operators in Applicative
.
pure
is equivalent to the default value constructor of f
, e.g. (:[])
for List
or Just
for Maybe
. This may be handful when lifting an unwrapped value to a wrapped one.
liftA2
transforms a binary operator to the corresponding version. The function exists as binary operators would be frequently passed among highorder functions.
*>
takes two wrapped parameters and simply returns the second one, which sequence up two wrapped values. This is quite useful for Applicative
with action semantics, such as IO
. In fact, it’s so useful that Haskell introduces a syntax sugar for it, known as the donotation
. Particularly:


is equivalent to


<*
is similar. Both will be reviewed while studying Monad.
OOPS!
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